The overall objective of the KAYARIB Project is to help to formulate and implement science and technology policies that can lead to sustainable development in general and to Efficient Energy Management in particular, with corresponding reduction of pollution by Green House Gaz (CO² is a GHG) and the ensuing minimisation of climate change.
« Given projected growth in world population and energy demand — particularly in developing countries — one of the most challenging issues facing the international community in the 21st century is how to simultaneously attain energy security, economic growth, poverty mitigation and environmental protection for all its citizens » Barbara McKee – Solutions for the 21st Century – 2002 – Chairman Intl. Energy Agency.
The underlying « formula » of the KAYARIB Project is the following « Kaya Equation ». This equation was developed by Japanese energy economist Yoichi Kaya in his book « Environment, Energy, and Economy: strategies for sustainability » (1993 – Tokyo, Japan). Dr. Yoichi Kaya is currently the Director-General of the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth and works toward the « New Earth 21 », a 100-year Japanese plan to clean up our natural environment.
The « Kaya Equation » is deceptively simple :
GHG emissions = Carbon content of the energy * Energy intensity of economy * Production per person * Population
1) Carbon content of the energy : GHG / Tonne of Oil Equivalent. Fossil fuels, when converted to energy, yield a very high level of GHG and should therfore be replaced by renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, hydro and biomass. Obviously this conversion cannot be attained in a very short time so energy from fossil fuels must therefore be used wisely (ex: Trinidad Natural Gaz).
2) Energy intensity of the economy : TOE / Gross National Product. Local economies should make a real effort to use Energy efficiently to increase the GNP. This implies using the best technologies available and obviously making the necessary investments to obtain energy efficiency (ex: abandon old incandescent lightbulbs and invest in new fluorescent ones).
3) Production per person : GNP / POPulation. The GNP (or the Gross Domestic Procduct) is actually considered as the most important economic indicator by policy makers. Its rise or fall measures economic activity based on the labor and production output within a country. However some newer indicators, such as the Human Development Index (IDH) or the Gross National Happiness (GNH) can be used to measure the wellbeing of the population without relying as much on the « classic » economy schema (production and consumption of goods). Many Caribbean states (Cuba, Belize, Jamaica, etc..) have a much better HDI than GNP. (see annexe 1)
Given there is no possible control over the variable « Population », only the first three variables are adressed by this project.
As can be seen, there are two strong scientific and technological challenges to be treated (increase renewable energy and increase energy efficiency) combined with a societal change (think HDI rather than GNP) to reach sustainable development and Efficient Energy Management. To summarize, the KAYARIB Project has three axes of investigations : Production, Efficiency, Usage
The purpose of the KAYARIB Project is to strengthen the internal science and technology capacity of ACP countries at three levels:
- Institutional, administrative and policy making .
- Academic research and technology.
- Business and civil society.
The importance of the Climate Change problem in Small Island Developing States was clearly demonstrated during the United Nations Conference in Mauritius Island in 2005. The conference report states specifically : « 16. The adverse effects of climate change and sea-level rise present significant risks to the sustainable development of small island developing States, and the long-term effects of climate change may threaten the very existence of some small island developing States. ». Consequently the KAYARIB projected actions are very relevant and beneficial for all Caribbean Citizens.